Hello, You can get auto insurance with an SR-22 however, you will need to list the vehicle that you own (even if inoperable). You do not qualify for a non-owners policy because you own a car and drive your friend's car regularly.
Every insurance company has different guidelines and available discounts, so it's hard to give a blanket statement about your eligibility. That said, The Zebra can quote you with several companies at once, giving you the chance to compare the best rates available.
If you have a state ID, you can get insurance. However, most companies require you to get a license within a specific time frame, but not all.
Car Insurance Costs
There is no way to say for sure outside of asking your specific insurance company. Most insurance providers that offer good student discounts have stipulations that may make you ineligible due to your age or the fact that you aren't covered on your parent's policy.
Since each insurance company has their own underwriting requirements, they would be the only ones who could tell you if your policy will be non-renewed due to your accidents. As for eligibility with other companies, unfortunately the answer is also the same.