I would call my prior insurance company (your renters provider) showing the false claim and see how they have it marked. I would also have them send confirmation that the claim was dropped and not paid out.
You would not be at fault in this case. In cases like this, it's best to get all the documentation you can, like a police report. If you have comprehensive and collision, you should be able to get your car fixed.
Each state has varying statutes on how long you have after damage occurs to file a claim. In Maryland, you actually have up to 3 years to file a property damage claim, although I would not recommend waiting that long as it can be difficult for your insurance company to properly assess the damage.
You will need to report the vehicle stolen before you are able to file a claim with your insurance provider. From there, your insurance company should handle the remainder of the claim if you have comprehensive coverage.
Sorry to hear about the theft of the dirt bike. The property damage portion of liability coverage pays for damage that you cause to another vehicle or object while you are driving, so the bike wouldn't be covered in this case.