How to Calculate Home Replacement Cost
Home replacement cost definition and basics
A major component of a homeowners insurance policy is your home's replacement cost. Also known as your dwelling coverage limit, this is selected when setting up your homeowners policy and is used to repair or replace your home if it is damaged or destroyed. While it may seem as easy as putting down your home's market value, this simply isn't the case.
Luckily, we've created a comprehensive guide to help you understand how home replacement cost is calculated and what to expect when rebuilding your home and replacing your personal belongings.
What is replacement cost coverage?
Replacement cost is the full amount it costs to replace or rebuild your property. This differs from your home's market value, which incorporates a number of other factors.
The primary parts of a home insurance policy to which replacement cost applies are dwelling coverage and personal property coverage. Dwelling coverage (also known as Coverage A in your policy) applies to your house and any attached structures — such as fencing or a garage — while personal property coverage refers to your personal belongings.
Most homeowners policies will cover your dwelling at replacement cost value (RCV), which pays for the full cost of rebuild or repair. However, this may not always be the case. If you have an older home — or a home with architectural features that would simply be too expensive to reasonably replace with modern materials — many insurers may not be willing the cover the full cost of replacement. In these cases, you might want to consider an HO-8 (modified) policy.1
Replacement cost vs. actual cash value
The flipside of replacement cost value is actual cash value (ACV). Actual cash value factors in depreciation when considering your payout.
ACV is rarely used for dwelling coverage and is much more commonly used for personal property. Because of their more limited coverage amounts, policies with actual cash value coverage for the dwelling are typically cheaper than replacement cost insurance policies.
Home replacement cost calculator
A simple way to get a replacement cost estimate for your home is to find the average per-foot rebuilding cost for your area and multiply that by your home’s overall square footage. Say that you have a 2,000-square-foot home. If local building costs average $100 per square foot, then you would be looking at a replacement cost of $200,000. Below is a simple formula to follow:
Home sq. ft. x local rebuild cost sq. ft. = RCV
Your area's local rebuild costs can usually be found on the websites of local construction companies or by reaching out to a contractor yourself. Determining your own rebuild costs may not be the most accurate method, but it will likely be on par with the amount provided by your insurer in your initial quote.
Other ways to calculate home replacement cost
Below are a few other methods to assist you in determining your home's replacement cost.
Home insurers have their own methods for calculating home replacement value. Many use software by insurance analytics companies such as Verisk to generate a replacement cost value for your address when you get your initial quote. These estimates are typically in the ballpark, but may not be as accurate as in-person appraisals.
There are a number of free or subscription-based tools available online that can aid in finding your home's replacement value. However, while these calculators typically use a number of location-based metrics, these replacement cost estimator tools are often quite limited in scope and may not be as accurate as other means of appraisal. Still, they can provide another point of reference to ensure that your rebuilt costs are at least generally in the right area.
To get the most accurate estimate, consult a local appraiser who can give you a more in-depth assessment based on your property’s unique features. Appraisers and contractors are likely to have a better sense of local ordinances and building costs, and can do a more thorough job of inspecting your home.
Zebra tip: know the difference between RCV and market value
While replacement cost is related to rebuilding costs, your home's market value is the price that it would fetch on the market. Market value takes into account factors such as proximity to good schools, crime rates and the land that your home is built on. Replacement cost does not include such factors. For a better idea of what goes into calculating your home's replacement cost, have a look at the list below.
What factors determine a home’s rebuild cost?
Home replacement cost is the amount of money that it costs to rebuild your home to the same standard that it was before a loss. When calculating the replacement cost of your home, consider the following:
- Roof type: Your roof can have a major impact on the cost to rebuild your home. Some roof types are built to withstand harsh weather conditions, and therefore may be more costly to replace.
- Local building codes: This can be especially important for older homes, as newer guidelines could make the repair cost higher.
- Foundation type: The type of foundation on which your house sits can be a big contributor to your rebuild cost.
- Square footage of your home: The average rebuild cost per square foot is one of the primary factors in determining replacement cost.
- Local construction costs: Construction costs will differ depending on where you live. Consult a local contractor to get an estimate.
- Outdoor features: Patios and decks attached to your primary dwelling can add value to your home and should be considered in your home's replacement value.
- Home improvements or additions: Major upgrades to your home can add significant value and should be disclosed to your insurer.
How does the 80% rule work in homeowners insurance?
Because you are in charge of setting your dwelling limits, the limit you choose can impact how your insurer handles your payout. Most home insurers abide by the 80% rule, which requires you to insure your home up to at least 80% of its replacement value in order to be fully covered.2 Otherwise, the insurer is not obligated to fully cover damages, only covering them proportionally to your coverage level. Remember: your deductible applies in all cases.
The 80% rule in action:
A home with a replacement value of $200,000 suffers $100,000 worth of damage in a fire. To be fully covered, the home must have a dwelling limit of at least $160,000 (80% of replacement value). However, suppose the home is only covered at $150,000. In this instance, the insurer will only cover 93.75% of the damage ($150,000/$160,000). This means that the homeowner will be required to pay the remaining $6,250 in damages out of pocket ($100,000 - $93,750).
While a limit of $150,000 would seem to be enough to cover the $100,000 in damages, the insurance company will only pay out proportionally for limits carried below the replacement cost. To avoid paying out-of-pocket, it's vital to have your limits set to the appropriate level.
Is your home underinsured? How to find out
When you get a homeowners insurance quote, the insurer suggests a dwelling coverage limit based on the information that you provide, internal data and research by third-party companies. It’s an educated guess and may not be entirely accurate. You can always speak to an insurance agent to find out how they come to their suggested coverage level to see if it seems appropriate for your home.
One way to prevent being underinsured is to enhance your policy with a guaranteed replacement cost endorsement. Guaranteed replacement cost coverage (also known as extended replacement cost) is an option available from many home insurance companies. It can help account for inflation as well as rises in labor costs and building materials. Essentially, if your home’s replacement cost ends up being more than your coverage limits, you are still covered to account for these increased building costs. Typically, this will cover expenses between 10% and 25% over your dwelling limit.
Also, don't forget home improvements or additions can increase your home's value and should be incorporated into your home replacement cost. Projects such as adding a patio or finishing a basement may raise your home replacement cost for insurance. Let your insurance company know about these additions as soon as possible to avoid being underinsured.
How to calculate the value of personal property for home insurance
While it can vary by insurance company, your personal property coverage amount is typically a percentage of your dwelling coverage level (usually around 50%). For instance, if your home is insured to a value of $200,000, your personal belongings would be covered up to $100,000. Keep this in mind when setting up your home insurance policy, and consider increasing this limit if this amount is not enough. Putting together a home inventory is a great way to keep track of the value of your belongings. This is important for both homeowners and renters policies, as it can come in very handy if you suffer a loss.
Zebra tip: Try to get RCV coverage for your personal belongings
Replacement cost for your personal property is increasingly common for many homeowners policies and covers your belongings at the full cost to replace them. While ACV is rare for dwelling coverage, some homeowners insurance policies still only replace your personal property at actual cash value, which factors depreciation into your final payout. If you have a more robust home policy — such as an HO-5 policy — your personal belongings may already be covered at RCV. It’s always a good idea to check your policy documents if you aren’t sure. If you want to ensure your belongings are fully covered, contact your insurer to see about upgrading your coverage to RCV.
Creating a home inventory for insurance
While it can seem tedious, putting a home inventory together for insurance purposes is easier than you might think and can come in handy in the event of a loss.
Follow these guidelines to keep track of your personal belongings:
- Keep an online inventory if possible (or at least store a copy online)
- Start with higher-priced items
- Group items by type
- Take pictures
- Make note of the condition of certain items
- Keep receipts (especially for higher-value items)
- Update your inventory regularly as you accumulate new possessions
Home replacement value considerations
To avoid being caught underinsured, it's important to keep an eye on your dwelling coverage levels. Because of the rate of inflation, this can mean reassessing your home's replacement cost every few years. You can speak with an insurance agent or local contractor to make sure that your replacement cost value is as accurate as possible.
If you are concerned about the cost of raising your dwelling coverage level, it may be time to look for a new policy altogether, as you may be about to find more affordable coverage elsewhere. The Zebra can help you get home insurance quotes from a number of top carriers. Simply enter your ZIP below to get started.
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What is replacement cost in home insurance?
Replacement cost is the total dollar amount it would cost if your home needs to be rebuilt. The general rule is that your dwelling limit must be set to at least 80% of your home's replacement cost to be fully covered.
How is replacement cost calculated?
There are a few ways to calculate a home's replacement cost, but the simplest way is to multiply your home's square footage with the average per-foot building cost for your area.
Is replacement cost the same as market value?
No, they are calculated differently. Replacement cost refers to what it costs to rebuild your home, while market value is the price that it would sell for on the market.
What factors affect the replacement cost value of a home?
Factors like square footage, roof and foundation type, outdoor features, home improvements, additions and local construction costs are considered when calculating a home's replacement cost.
Can I insure my house for more than its worth?
You can, as long as you understand that replacement cost is different from your home's market value. Homeowners can opt for extended replacement cost, which can cover expenses between 10% and 25% over your dwelling limit.
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