Personal Property Insurance

How does personal property coverage — also known as home contents coverage — work?

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What is personal property insurance?

Personal property insurance — also known as home contents insurance — is coverage that protects your personal belongings. The exact specifications of your home contents coverage depend on your policy details, but it generally covers your personal belongings up to your coverage limits in the case of their damage or destruction via a covered loss.

Let’s explore the ins and outs of personal property insurance to ensure the contents of your home are protected.

  1. What does personal property insurance cover?
  2. Does personal property insurance cover appliances?
  3. What is excluded from personal property insurance?
  4. How much coverage should you have?
  5. Actual cash value vs. replacement cost
  6. Tips and additional resources


What is covered by personal property insurance?

First, a note: most property policies do not cover personal property separately. It’s unlikely you will find an insurance policy to cover just your personal belongings. Your renters, homeowners, or condo policy may cover for your liability insurance and your personal property (contents). If you want insurance coverage for your personal property alone, invest in a renters policy (or home or condo).

Your home contents insurance applies to everything you own that resides within the walls of your home or apartment — your clothes, TV and other electronics, furniture, appliances, and so on. What circumstances they are covered against depends on the specifics of your policy.

If you have a named peril policy for your personal property, you will have coverage against the following hazards:

  1. Lightning or fire
  2. Hail or windstorm
  3. Damage caused by aircraft
  4. Explosions
  5. Riots or civil disturbances
  6. Smoke damage
  7. Damage caused by vehicles
  8. Theft
  9. Vandalism
  10. Falling objects
  11. Volcanic eruption
  12. Damage from the weight of snow, ice, or sleet
  13. Water damage from plumbing, heating, or air conditioning overflow
  14. Water heater cracking, tearing, and burning
  15. Damage from electrical current
  16. Pipe freezing

If your property is damaged by any of the hazards listed above, you would have coverage up to your policy limits. It is called a named-peril policy because all the perils (causes of loss) are specifically listed on your policy.

Another type of coverage for personal property is known as an open peril policy. Here, all the perils that won’t be covered are specifically listed. This coverage is more robust: you only need to prove the excluded perils did not cause the damage.

In an open peril policy, the following hazards are excluded from coverage:

  1. Freezing pipes and systems in vacant dwellings
  2. Damage to foundations or pavements from ice and water weight
  3. Theft from a dwelling under construction
  4. Vandalism to vacant dwellings
  5. Latent defects, corrosion, industrial smoke, pollution
  6. Settling, wear, and tear
  7. Pets, other animals, and pests
  8. Weather conditions that aggravate other excluded causes of loss
  9. Government and association actions
  10. Defective construction, design, and maintenance

Personal property insurance sub-limits

For particularly valuable items, such as jewelry and fine art, most companies will restrict the total amount of compensation. Below are the common sub-limits you can expect.





Money, gold, coins



Jewelry, watches, furs

Theft only


Watercraft, trailers

Theft only








Business property



Business property





If you have any item that exceeds the limitations listed above, consider an endorsement to your personal property insurance. An endorsement exceeds the coverage limit in order to protect a specific kind of property. For example, a jewelry endorsement would raise your coverage limit for all your jewelry. If you have one piece of jewelry that is valuable, such as an engagement ring, you might want to consider a scheduled endorsement. This additional coverage would require an item-by-item appraisal, but is the best way to protect high-value items.

Does personal property insurance cover appliances?

Home appliances are considered personal property when it comes to insurance coverage designations, so they fall under what home contents insurance will cover. As long as your appliance was damaged or destroyed because of a covered peril listed on the policy, insurance will take care of its repair or replacement — the circumstances surrounding the damage sustained by your appliance matters to your insurance company, so it's best to be armed with proof of the peril that caused its state should your insurer inquire.

What appliances will be covered may vary from insurer to insurer, so confirm with the company providing your personal property insurance about which appliances are eligible for coverage. Things that plug-in to an outlet, like a refrigerator or washing machine, are examples of appliances that should be covered. However, appliances that are built-in to your home, like a hot water heater, could be covered by the dwelling portion of your homeowners insurance policy instead. 

Wear-and-tear and maintenance and operational issues related to the age of an appliance are never covered by insurance.

What is not covered by a personal property insurance policy?

Certain perils will never be covered by insurance companies — regardless if it’s a named or open peril policy. If your contents are damaged or destroyed by the following perils, you will not have insurance coverage:

  1. Flood*
  2. Hurricane
  3. Mold**
  4. Vandalism to vacant dwellings
  5. Wear and tear
  6. Property damage caused by pets
  7. Earthquakes
  8. Enforcement of building codes and similar laws
  9. Intentional acts
  10. Neglect
  11. Government acts

*You can add flood/hurricane coverage back to your contents by purchasing a flood insurance policy through FEMA and the National Flood Insurance Policy. This will cover your personal property contents up to $100,000. If the value of your contents exceeds this, consider purchasing another private flood insurance.

**You can add limited coverage for mold on many standard property insurance policies.

Furthermore, because we’re discussing a contents policy, you will have no coverage for your liability, physical structure of your dwelling, your additional living expenses, or your medical payments to others. These coverages are standard in a home or renters policy.

How much home contents coverage should you have?

While it can vary, you generally have some flexibility for your personal property coverage limit. Typical renters policies will default to $10,000 to $25,000 in personal property coverage. If you are sharing your renter’s policy with a roommate, you might elect to increase this coverage amount.

On a homeowners policy, your property personal coverage can default to a percentage of dwelling coverage — usually between 50 and 70% of your dwelling amount. If your dwelling amount is $250,000, your personal property coverage may range from $125,000 to $187,500.

Actual cash value vs. replacement cost coverage?

The standard personal property insurance policy will reimburse you for your belongings on an actual cash value basis. Actual cash value, or ACV, means you are reimbursed for what your belongings are currently worth — not what you originally paid for. Replacement cost, on the other hand, will reimburse you based on what it would cost to replace your belongings at the original market value.

If you’re able to, we recommend insuring your personal property contents on a replacement cost basis. While it does increase your premium, you are better compensated for your damaged items.

Tips and additional resources

If you want your contents covered, we recommend you look for renters, homeowners, or a condo insurance policy. This will not only protect your belongings, but your liability, the structure of your home, and other coverage options not available just for your contents. For more information on these policies and the amount of coverage that you need, see below.

As you’re shopping for your home contents insurance, we recommend the following:

  • Take an inventory of all your belongings, paying special attention to anything that would fall under the sub-limit category.
  • Insure your contents on a replacement cost basis
  • Don’t limit yourself to property coverage only — invest in a renters, homeowners, or condo policy. Below are some companies we recommend.
  • Get insurance quotes from as many companies as possible for the cheapest rate.

Find a policy today!

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Ava Lynch LinkedIn

Based in Austin, TX, Ava has been in the insurance industry as a licensed agent for 4-plus years. Ava is currently one of The Zebra’s resident property insurance experts and has been featured in publications such as US News Report, GasBuddy, and Yahoo! Finance.