Personal Injury Protection Insurance (PIP)

What is PIP coverage and how much do you need? Let's dive into the details of Personal Injury Protection coverage.
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Renata Balasco

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Renata joined The Zebra in 2020 as a Customer Experience Agent. Since 2021, she has worked as licensed insurance professional and content strategist.…

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Ross Martin

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Ross joined The Zebra as a writer and researcher in 2019. He specializes in writing insurance content to help shoppers make informed decisions.

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What is PIP Insurance? 

Personal Injury Protection (PIP) coverage is the portion of a car insurance policy that provides medical expenses and work loss coverage for you and your passengers after a car accident, regardless of fault. PIP coverage is often a requirement in "No-Fault" states, as it covers your injuries, no matter who caused the accident.

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You should purchase PIP coverage if:
  • State law requires it.
  • You commonly drive with passengers in your vehicle who could hold you responsible for their medical expenses if they were injured in an accident.
  • You don’t have a great health insurance plan. A robust health insurance plan makes high PIP limits less necessary. If in doubt, check with your healthcare provider.

What does PIP cover?

Personal injury protection insurance is a “no-fault” coverage that covers the cost of injuries to you and your passengers. PIP is intended to reduce the likelihood of lawsuits after a collision. Even if you are at fault in an auto accident, medical expenses — medical and surgical treatment, ambulance fees and medication — for you and your passengers will be covered up to the policy’s limit.

Personal injury protection coverage replaces the standard bodily injury liability portion of an insurance policy. PIP can also be used to recover lost wages, rehabilitation services and more.

PIP insurance covers:

  • Medical bills
  • Surgical fees
  • Ambulance fees
  • Lost wages
  • Rehabilitation services
  • Funeral expenses
  • Death benefit
  • Essential services (lawn care, etc...)
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PIP coverage limits

PIP benefits and coverage vary depending on the location of the insurance policy. In Florida, PIP insurance will typically cover 80% of medical bills and 60% of lost wages, up to $10,000. In other states, PIP coverage levels can be much higher or much lower.

Drivers in Michigan, however, have much higher PIP limits. This is one of the main reasons car insurance is expensive in Michigan.

What does PIP not cover?

Because PIP does not provide coverage for physical damage to the insured driver's vehicle, it does not provide coverage after an at-fault accident.

Find below a list of other exclusions. 

  • Property damage liability insurance: Damages the insured causes to another person's property (including vehicle damages).
  • Collision coverage: The damage to the insured's vehicle in an at-fault accident.
    Comprehensive coverage: The damage to the insured's vehicle caused in a non-collision incident.
  • Uninsured/underinsured motorist coverage: This coverage can be applied to property or bodily injury protection. While it's possible to purchase uninsured property damage coverage to protect a vehicle if the at-fault party does not have insurance, PIP provides the coverage necessary for uninsured bodily injury coverage.
  • Expenses beyond the policy's coverage limits.

Where is PIP required?

When accidents occur in a no-fault state, both parties file claims with their individual insurance providers regardless of who is at fault in the accident. No-fault and personal injury protection states go hand in hand— PIP is the coverage that pays for you and your passengers medical expenses and loss of income following an accident, and is a section of auto insurance found in no-fault states. 

While there are about 20 no-fault states that offer some level of personal injury protection (PIP) coverage, only 13 states require it:


PIP requirements by state

Below is the required amount of PIP coverage in various U.S. states. 

Limit: $15,000 per person

Delaware PIP insurance will cover up to $15,000 for any single person's injuries and will pay a total of $30,000 per accident. This coverage also includes up to $5,000 for funeral expenses.

Limit: $10,000 per person

PIP coverage in Florida covers 80% of your medical and disability expenses up to $10,000. It will also pay up to $5,000 in death benefits in certain circumstances. 

Limit: varies

PIP coverage in Kansas covers the following:

  • $4,500 medical expense per person
  • $900 per month income loss for one year
  • $25 per day at-home services
  • $4,500 rehabilitation expense per person
  • $2,000 funeral expense per person

Limit: $8,000 per person/per accident

Massachusetts personal injury protection is the primary payer for the first $2,000 in medical expenses. Afterward, the driver's personal healthcare coverage kicks in with PIP coverage acting as the secondary payer.

Limit: varies

Michigan recently enacted laws changing their PIP requirements in an effort to bring down car insurance rates. PIP coverage is still required (in almost all cases), but is now available in the following amounts:

  • Unlimited PIP coverage 
  • $500,000
  • $250,000
  • $50,000 (lowest option available for Medicaid recipients)
  • Opt-out (only drivers with a qualifying health insurance plan that covers car accident injuries)

Limits: $40,000 per person/per accident

Minnesota personal injury coverage limits are higher than in most states. The $40,000 limit breaks down as such:

  • $20,000 for hospital/medical expenses 
  • $20,000 for non-medical expenses

Limit: $15,000 PIP coverage per person

New Jersey personal injury protection covers up to $15,000 in medical expenses per accident. Further add-ons to PIP coverage include:

  • Income continuation
  • Essential services (house cleaning, lawn care, etc...)
  • Death benefit
  • Funeral expenses

Limit: $50,000 per person

New York PIP coverage also includes a $2,000 death benefit in addition to the $50,000 in coverage for medical expenses. 

Limit: $30,000 per person

In addition to medical expenses, North Dakota personal injury protection also covers lost wages and funeral expenses. 

Limit: $15,000 per person

Additionally, Oregon PIP insurance covers loss of wages up to $3,000 per month, essential services, childcare, and a death benefit of up to $5,000.

Limits: $5,000 per person

Those injured may sue the at-fault driver, but the injuries suffered must be severe. 

Limit: $3,000

Those injured may sue the at-fault driver in cases of severe injury or if medical expenses are in excess of $3,000. Further benefits include:

  • Lost wages coverage (Up to 85% or $250/week)
  • Essential services
  • $1,500 for funeral expenses
  • $3,000 death benefit

States where PIP coverage is optional

The following states offer personal injury protection, but it is not required of all drivers. This coverage must often be waived in writing. 

Average PIP insurance costs

The cost of PIP insurance depends on factors such as coverage level, age, type of vehicle, your auto insurance company, and location. The data below is reflective of a 30-year-old male driver with no accident, good credit, and the owner of a 2016 Honda Civic.

State Avg. Annual Premium Avg. PIP Premium
Delaware $2,117 $232
Florida $2,923 $400
Hawaii $1,409 $89
Kansas $1,791 $54
Kentucky $2,567 $175
Massachusetts $1,418 $55
Michigan $2,176 $428
Minnesota $1,707 $200
New Jersey $2,043 $336
New York $2,171 $236
North Dakota $1,555 $97
Oregon $1,509 $124
Pennsylvania $1,777 $78
Utah $1,617 $54

Find the PIP insurance you need quickly and easily!

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